These notes are based on chapter 1 of:
Gillani, B. B. (2003). Learning theories and the design of e-learning environments. University Press of America.
p.1 "Telling is not teaching: listening is not learning, Anonymous"
Human intelligence can be split into eight somewhat related types (Gardner, 1983):
p.6 "Researchers … support the concept that the brain is pattern-seeking device that analyzes specific features from the environment and then generates permanent neural activities that represent these features. These newly formed neural patterns …. are being combined and organized with prior knowledge according to core concepts of major themes that guide the thinking, memory, and problems solving of students."
p.7 "O'Keefe and Nadal (1974) discovered two types of memory: taxon and locale. Taxon memory is concerned with facts and figures and depends on rehearsal and rote memorization. Because it is non-contextual and not integrated with prior knowledge, the retrial of this type of memory is difficult when needed for problem solving…. it is driven by the limbic system [of the brain]…. Locale memory is contextual and situational based. The hippocampus in our limbic system creates a spatial and contextual of the environmental input. These maps are continuously reconstructed in our memory as the new information is combined with prior information. Therefore, our memory becomes internal and virtually permanent."
p.7 "Experts are those individuals who have organised their taxon memory into their locale memory according to the big picture of some core concepts. A novice, on the other hand, simply memorizes new information without any attempt to encode it into long-term memory without much regard to its organization. The difference between the way an expert learns and to organize information and the novice who just memorizes new information becomes apparent when it comes to retrieval and problem solving. The former can easily retrieve relevant information to solve the problem at hand, whereas the novice attempts in vain to use a variety of approaches to solve the problem at hand. In other words, experts have achieved meaningful knowledge structures and problem solving abilities and novices have not."
p.8 "Metacognition refers to the knowledge about oneself as learner…. Learns can be taught strategies to monitor and regulate their own learning. These strategies include planning, monitoring, and regulating. These strategies are important in helping students learn how to learn."
p.8 "Researchers … have argued that a child's [or a person's] development cannot be understood by a study of the individual. One must also examine the external, social, and historical world in which the individual's life develops. Each member of the society assists the child's cognitive development."