Zones of participation (and non-participation in open strategy: Desirable, actual, and undesirable

Smith, P., Callagher, L. J., Crewe-Brown, J., & Siedlok, F. (2018). Zones of participation (and non-participation) in open strategy: Desirable, actual and undesirable. [email protected]@gement, 21(1), 646–666.


This paper shows how strategic initiatives in the context of well-established open strategy processes at two producer co-operatives reveal four tensions related to inclusion and transparency at the level of both the firm and the individual actor. We derive a “zones of participation” model that shows how tensions created by the interplay of the content, process and context of strategy cause actors to participate (or not participate) in open strategy formulation and implementation. We address theoretical and practical implications regarding the open strategy content, process, and context interplay, including a range of management tactics required in different participation zones.


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